Online Collection

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'Camel Market. Peshawar City', North West Frontier of India, 1905 (c)

Photograph by Randolph Bezzant Holmes (1888-1973), India, 1905 (c).

Peshawar was a commercial hub on the trade routes between India and Central Asia. For centuries camels were crucial to the transport of goods over difficult terrain.

Following the 2nd Sikh War (1848-1849) Peshawar became a vital military centre for the British in India. After the Partition of India, Peshawar became the provincial capital city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The city was a centre for the Mujahideen fighting in Afghanistan against Soviet Russian forces in the 1980s and, more recently, a target for Taleban fighters, following the '9/11' Al Qaeda attacks on the United States.

From a photograph album compiled by Lieutenant Hugh Stephenson Turnbull (1882-1973), 57th Wilde's Rifles (Frontier Force), including, 'Snapshots and Views' in India and Egypt, 1903-1906.

According to the Hodson Index of Indian Army officers, Turnbull was commissioned in 1902 but only served in India for six years due to the climate being unsuitable for his health. He joined the Irish Constabulary in 1912 but returned to the Army during World War One (1914-1918), serving with the Gordon Highlanders. He was appointed Chief Constable of Cumberland and Westmorland in 1922, and became Commissioner of the City of London Police in 1926. He retired in 1950 and died in 1973.

NAM Accession Number

NAM. 2003-02-301-16


National Army Museum, Out of Copyright


National Army Museum, Study collection

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